Walking in Dian Fossey’s footsteps… Volcanoes National Park, Rwanda

“When you realise the value of all life, you dwell less on what has past and concentrate on the preservation of the future” – Dian Fossey

A silver back sitting eating in the Volacnoes National Park, Rwanda

A silver back sitting eating in the Volacnoes National Park, Rwanda

It seemed fitting to finally trek and visit where Dian Fossey or Nyiramacyibili, as local Rwandans call her, had spent her days researching and working so hard to protect the mountain gorillas in Rwanda and neighbouring DRC and Uganda.

So a few days after our climb in the DRC we were meant to hike to the top of Bisoke to view the crater lake but with sore and tired legs we decided to take a smaller hike and visit Karisoke and the area Dian Fossey had spent so much time in working to protect the mountain gorillas in Rwanda.

Sunrise over Sabiyano Volcano

Sunrise over Sabiyano Volcano in the Virunga Volcano Range

We set off early in the morning ahead of the groups trekking to the Gorillas – hoping maybe we might stumble upon them first and have a wee glimpse at the great apes she had worked so hard to protect.

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Walking through farmland towards the park and Bisoke

“Little did I know then that by setting up two small tents in the wilderness of the Virungas I had launched the beginnings of what was to become an internationally renowned research station eventually to be utilized by students and scientists from many countries.”  — Dian Fossey, writing in her book “Gorillas in the Mist,” about the founding of the “Karisoke” Research Center, a name she created from the nearby Mt. Karisimbi and Mt. Visoke (Bisoke). 

There were signs along the trail that one of the Gorilla groups were near. We saw prints and fresh pooh but they stayed hidden from us amongst the forest and we were all hoping to catch a quick glimpse of them but it was not to be.

Gorilla prints fresh on the trail

Gorilla prints fresh on the trail

I can’t recommend this hike enough. I have been up into this range of mountains three times prior to this, each time on a different mountain and every time has been different in the trail and the experience. The jungle on this trek was nothing short of stunning throughout the hike, that alone and the views of the mountains (we did have an exceptionally clear day) were truly breath taking – along with knowing you were trudging the trail a true legend had many times before.

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Becoming at one with nature

At 2967 meters the trail splits, with the left branch leading to the grave site of Dian Fossey and the right climbing to the summit of Bisoke.

IMG_9808_thumbWe reached the area Dian Fossey and her team lived in worked in which was a  relatively flat area that was being reclaimed by the forest. There were many pieces of the old buildings still remaining in place and we could see why she had chosen such an amazing spot to live and protect the gorillas.

IMG_4990Dian Fossey spent 18 years in and out of the forest studying and trying to protect the Mountain Gorillas. She brought much attention to their plight and surely without her efforts they would certainly not be around today. In 1967 she founded Karisoke research centre – those two tents she first set up were the beginnings of a world known research centre. Sadly on December 27 in 1985 Dian Fossey was killed at the age of 54. There are many theories on her murder but it was never determined who killed her.

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Dian Fosseys grave – known to the people of Rwanda as Nyiramacyibili

The Gorilla graveyard was the final place we stopped at on our visit to the area. It was quiet and peaceful with beautiful light coming through the trees. Dian was laid to rest along one of her favourite gorillas Digit who she had met in 1967 but was brutally killed by poachers in 1977.

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Her beloved Digit’s gravesite right next to where Dian Fossey was laid to rest

Learn more about the Volcanoes National Park here and other treks you can do or visit Rwanda Tourism to learn more about activities in Rwanda.

To book your trek to visit and pay respects to Dian Fossey visit  contact reservation@rwandatourism.com

The trek costs $75 usd and you will need to have your own transport as you have to meet at the park head quarters in the morning and be transported across to the trek.

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Ruzizi Lodge, Akagera Rwanda

I’ve been fortunate to take two trips to Akagera National Park in Rwanda and stay at the chilled and stunning Ruzizi lodge on the banks of lake Ihema that boarders Tanzania in the east of Rwanda. Everything at the lodge is relaxing and scenic — from the walkways that connect the lodge, the outdoors dining area and the tents to the monkeys swinging through the trees in the morning. Just a 2 hour drive from Kigali you can find yourself in the Park on a game drive and after a long hot day in the park its a perfect retreat kicking back in your bed just gazing out to the lake and listening to nature.

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One of the best parts about the lodge is that there are only 9 tents so its never too busy. You have your own private patio area at the front of your tent.

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The lodge prides itself on being eco-conscious and is entirely solar powered. The dining location is unbeatable for a view of sunrise over the lake. Dinner and breakfast are a real treat – watching from a raised platform that serves as a dining room. The hippos sometimes pop their heads up to say hello, the monkeys playing, and the many bird species at the end of the day settling into the trees for the night.

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The raised wooden pathways are gently woven into the trees un-interrupting nature and just letting it get on with itself lead to the tents that are hidden amongst the trees.

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Visited by monkeys in the morning swinging through the trees – if you leave the window shades to the tent and door shades up you can watch them from your bed running around the front of the tent and swinging across the trees.

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Likewise at night you may get visited by a hungry hippo – don’t panic the tents are raised and so they can’t get to you. Although I have to admit with the complete stillness of the night and the noise they make it can be quite exciting. We were fortunate enough to have one come up around the lodge after dinner so we could watch it grazing on the grass and then another was around our tent crashing about in and out of the lake for a while at night so we got to watch it as well.

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The park itself is monitored by African Parks. The park has flourished since my last visit “Animal numbers have doubled since the first aerial census in 2010, when estimations put fewer than 6,000 large mammals in the park. The most recent 2015 census counted over 12,000 large mammals, revealing that populations of elephant, buffalo, waterbuck, zebra, topi, warthog, roan antelope and our newly reintroduced lion have all increased!” Amazing!

Lions were released into the park just a few days after my last trip in 2015. It has been amazing to follow their progress and reintroduction back  which is an exciting re-addition for Rwanda and Akagera. Their population has already doubled, births of seven cubs in 2016 and have even been spotted climbing trees!

The views around the park are stunning, especially from some of the higher spots in the park looking down over the lake. If you’re headed to Rwanda this is a great place for a weekend getaway, its a lot cheaper than many other safaris on the continent at just $35 usd for international travellers. For more information on the park and getting there visit African Parks website.

Camping in Menagesha Forest

We’re lucky to have a great spot as close as an hour to Addis Ababa that we can spend a weekend camping and feel like you’ve been on holiday for a week when you come back to the city dirty and dusty. These shots are from Mika’s first camping trip we took with a group of friends I work with here in February 2016.

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There are several camping spots in the park this is for sure our favourite under the trees with loads of spots to hang hammocks and settle really in.

Mikas first camping trip at 9 months – her small camp chair was a big hit and she certainly owned it!

Was so fun to be there with our friends, get time to hang out and relax for the weekend.

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The forest is pretty stunning to hike up through. We’ve seen colobus monkeys before and baboons even came to visit the campsite.

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Taking a hike

Mika got into the backpack for the first time and we went for a hike. About 10 minutes in she passed out.

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The crew

Exploring Lalibela with Mika

In May we decided it was time to take on our first real adventure as a team – Mika and I. We headed to Lalibela, Mika in the backpack, for a long weekend with a friend visiting Ethiopia, Jenn, who I had taught with in India and Chris a friend and colleague from school in Addis.

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Standing in front of St George Church

It was certainly a different experience for me and I was grateful to help friends to help us out along the way as I developed my new skills of how to travel rough with a baby. Lucky for me Mika is such a social wee girl, loves being in the backpack and is up for as much as an adventure as I am.

 

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Mika sitting in the entrance to one of the churches

It was a great weekend exploring the city and churches and I was glad for the company and support to help carry Mika around in the heat. She loved the priests and their crosses.

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Making friends everywhere

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The markets are always one of my favourite places when I travel. I love seeing what is for sale, how people go about their sales and trades, the movement and conversations. This market did not disappoint it was bustling with so much activity and friendly faces welcoming us.

On Sunday morning Jenn and I got up early to head down to one of the cluster of churches to see how busy it would be when service was happening. We weren’t disappointed, around every corner there were floods of people praying, priests blessing people and movement in and out of the churches.

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Young girl we met outside one of the churches

 

We had a great weekend exploring the town, churches and markets — this girl is always smiling, always waving, always happy… thank you Lalibela for your warmth and beautiful people just like my little Habesha.

Climbing Nyiragongo Volcano in DRC

I inched out of my damp sleeping bag that had been caught in the rain on the climb up the volcano. Even though my head was saying no, I couldn’t get comfortable with the thin ground mat and tent between me and the volcanic rock I was trying to settle in on. My head was thumping and I felt like crap but the rangers had called us out convinced we had to take a look. We crawled across the volcanic rock and up a few meters from our camping ledge and peered down… I instantly felt heat on my face, could hear the gas explosions below and was mesmerized by the sight in front of me, I hadn’t imagined this at all.

I had gazed up at the volcano seeing the golden glow in the sky late at night from Rwanda for a year before I managed to convince my friend Shannon to take a trip back with me to Rwanda and cross the boarder into DRC to make the climb up. I am not sure I mentioned we would be sleeping on volcanic rock on a small ledge and only meters from the craters edge… I’m not sure I really knew either but it was so worth the effort!

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That was in October 2010 and now almost five years on I was back again to take on Mount Nyiragongo with more great friends. They asked how tough it was and I mentioned it must have been an easy climb as I couldn’t really remember it being a challenge. However, five years on, a bunch more kilos under the belt, age catching up on me and still not having got my act together following a broken ankle last year it was far from easy!

We were picked up from the boarder where Gisenyi (Rwanda’s most North western town) meets Goma at the top of Lake Kivu which boarders both countries. The crossing is simple once you have your paperwork for the DRC side (see information below in ‘how to’ section below) and make sure you bring your yellow fever certificate for DRC. The process took about 15 minutes and then we were met by Elie from Virunga Parks and taken to the office to sign in for the hike.

Park signs at the bottom of the trail

Park signs at the bottom of the trail – show a bit of wear and tear

Once we were signed in at the office we set off up the road towards Nyiragongo to meet up with the rest of the group and start the climb. The drive is about 30 minutes from Goma town and as we got closed the volcano started to appear. Mount Nyiragongo is Africa’s most active volcano standing at 3470m at the crater rim just North of Goma in the East of DRC. The volcano last erupted in 2002 causing large scale evacuation and destroying part of Goma town and the airport. All the roads around Goma bare signs of this with volcanic rock on every road you’re on.

Heading up the road towards the start of the climb

Heading up the road towards the start of the climb

By 11am we were ready to set off from the starting point at 1996m we had to climb to 3470m to the top. A group of fifteen tourists set off on the trail after a briefing from the guides and rangers. Most people had hired a porter who are readily available at the start of the trek (great to support the local community) between two of them carrying their packs and gear for the night. So with the rangers and porters we were close to 30 people.

Starting point at 1996m

Starting point at 1996m… only 1500m vertical to ascend. Nyiragongo rising up in the background.

The first section of the climb was through the bush

The first section of the climb was a very gradual climb through the bush

We took scheduled breaks along the way as each section of the climb changed in terms of vegetation and steepness. This also allowed the group to keep together and everyone to catch up. The pace our group had set was pretty fast at first and certainly slowed as we got to a higher altitude – my lungs were in my ears by the time we reached the last break.

Large section that was over rough volcanic rock

Then into a large section over rough volcanic rock and gradually got steeper after each break.

Nearing the final section

Rain came in for part of the climb and it cooled off

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Looking down

Looking back down towards Goma over the final steep section of volcanic rock

Once we reached the top, after about 5 and a half hours of climbing, we made a fast move into our cabin/ tent and changed out of our wet clothes. The temperature at the top was significantly cooler and we were feeling pretty rough from the last section of the climb so after having a brief look into the crater took a short nap. I won’t lie I felt like a new woman after sleeping even for just 30 minutes (I highly recommend it if you feel crappy when you get to the top).

Cabins at the top

Cabins at the top – home for the night.

View into the Crater from the top

View into the Crater from the top

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The main crater is about two kilometers in width

Groupie at the top

Groupie at the top

View into the crater

View into the crater at night – you can feel the head and see the larva bubbling

Amazing smell, sounds and views - mesmerising

Amazing smell, sounds and views – mesmerising

After a solid nights sleep of about 10 hours (everyone was in bed early) we started the decent. We started walking before 7am and were back down at the car park by 11am. I recommend you take a rain coat if you plan to do this trek no matter what time of year – about 15 minutes from the end of the trail the rain came in hard – we felt sorry for the people who were just starting to head up for the night as they were going to be drenched all day.

Heading back down

Heading back down – a steep decent from the top.

The trek back down

The trek back down

Printing some photos from the porters on my Polaroid printer

Spent some time taking photos and printing some photos from the porters on my Polaroid printer

So want to make the trip and want to know how and some TIPS?

I highly recommend the trek – its safe and you are well supported. Contact the Virunga Parks directly for advice they are helpful on email and respond quickly to questions.

What to take?

Food supplies…  You need to take food for lunch on the way up and dinner at the top. You will also need something from breakfast before you start the climb down early in the morning. We prepared some pasta for dinner pre-cooked so we didn’t need to buy coal and cook at the top (its way too cold to sit outside for too long). We also took a bunch of snacks to eat on the way up and down – so at each stopping point had a snack rather than a big meal.

Clothing wise. Its cold at the top and its likely to rain at some stage on the way up or down (we had rain both ways) so bring a jacket and cover for your bag. You need a change of clothes to put on at the top. I took a long sleeve thermal and large warm sweatshirt, beanie (woolen hat), long skin pants, long wooly socks. I also would have liked to have had gloves as it would have been more comfortable staying outside to watch the volcano at night.

Sleeping. There is a wooden hut with a tent inside for you to sleep in. Inside the tent has a good mat and pillow to sleep on. You need to bring your own sleeping bag. We were warm in our clothes and sleeping bags.

Shoes? It really depends on your preference and how strong your ankles are. We all wore trainers but there were some in hiking boots. I hate boots so my Asics running shoes did the trick for me and I had a broken ankle just last year. However, there is a huge amount of volcanic rock you have to walk on so make sure your shoes at least have good grip – I also used a walking stick (as did loads of others) which was really helpful on the way down.

Money for tips and other. Make sure you have small USD and make sure none of them have as much as a small nick in them. They won’t be accepted in DRC by anyone if they even have a tiny tear in them, so make sure you have recent notes and small denominations. You will need to pay a porter to carry your bag (trust me you want this – I’m pretty sure everyone in the group used someone) 12usd per day (24 total for the way up and back). You will also have at least 3 rangers with the group who deserve a  tip as well. Coal is 5usd a bag as is a walking stick you can get to use if you think you want either. The walking stick I ended up using and it was really helpful on the way down on the loose rock.

How do you do it?

Visit Virunga National Parks website that will talk you through everything. Permits for the climb and park including overnight at the top cost $250usd can all be booked online http://visitvirunga.org/treks/

Once you have your permit order number you will be able to apply for a DRC Visa (Valid for 2 weeks) for $105usd https://visitvirunga.org/visa/visa-application/

You will also need to book transport from Goma to Kibati (the start of the trek) which can be done online for $28usd per head (Again through Virunga National parks website)

You can stay in Gisenyi on Rwanda side and cross over the morning of your hike and leave the day you come down or stay in Goma to do some other activities – plenty of information on the website also. Crossing over at the boarder took about 20-30 mins either way and was simple with the permit and pre-approved visa.

My Harari Adventure

I first came to Ethiopia in 2010… I only had a month to adventure around this incredible country, it wasn’t long enough!  Extending my visa seemed like too much effort and I left absolutely gutted to not get to Harar.  I thought about coming back to Ethiopia for years just to go see what I had missed.  However, when I decided to move here last year I knew I would be able to finally go and a few weeks ago my dream came true. I will admit I was worried I had built it up in my mind and might be disappointed… was I? Not at all… it was amazing!

One of the original gates to the city daily hosts a busy colourful market

One of the original gates to the city daily hosts a busy colourful market

I think my best decision was to drive the 500km from Addis Ababa to Harar…

“You’re driving? Why not fly?”
“You’re going on your own? You should fly! ”

This was what I was asked time and time again before the trip…

Here’s what you don’t get when you fly…

You don’t get the cool mountain air blowing in the window as you steam across passes. You don’t get the smell of eucalyptus trees on a plane, you can’t hear the children yelling “you you Faranji”, or see the smiles, waves and heads turn as you drive past. You don’t get the waves or the yells and whistles from the truck drivers as you pass them in blocked up villages. You don’t get the chance to harness your driving skills to dodge cows, goats, sheep, donkeys and camels, while young boys who can barely see over the backs of the cows pull their tails to drag them back off the road. You don’t see that every second man has a huge bag of khat (qat) and have them try to fling at you. You miss the chance to be sold birds, charcoal and wood as well. You can’t see the rolling hills and the deep valleys. You miss the women taking the donkeys with jerry cans to wait in a huge line at the village well to fill up with water for the daily chores. You miss it all on a plane – there is no sensory feast like I got… so when I can I will take the road – the journey is as good as (sometimes better than) the destination !

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The journey east can take anywhere from 7-9 hours depending on your luck with khat trucks, buses, camels, overloaded donkeys, and other life stock crossing the road. The drive once you are past Awash is amazing as you enter the drive up through the Chercher and Abra Gugu mountains and finally down into Harar where the gates to the walled city greet you filled with colour and movement. I managed a 8 hour drive over and a quick 7 hour trip back with a quick stop in Awash for petrol and a coke.

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Termed the ‘City of Saints’, Harar is a predominantly considered a muslim city with over 80 mosques hidden in its alleyways and considered by many to be the 4th holy city of Islam. Despite its Muslim appearance in 2003 UNESCO awarded Harar the City of Peace prize for existing with all of its varied religious group in harmony for so long. In the center of the city you can come across the grand mosque, a Catholic church and an Orthodox Church all within a stone throw from one another.

One of the many mosques hidden int he alleyways of the city

One of the many mosques hidden int he alleyways of the city

Its a maze of 368 alleyways inside the walls and a fun place to get lost – although you can always find your way back to the center. The alleyways are filled with people and activity and around any of the gates you will find busy markets in the late afternoon.

Children playing while women are busy carrying goods off to the market

Children playing while women are busy carrying goods off to the market

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I would have had little chance navigating the alleyways as behind many gates were hidden sites to check out.  I was recommended Biniyam from a friend at work, not someone who usually takes a guide I worried that he may not get what I was about and try to take me go and see things I really wasn’t interested in. This was not the case and we immediately hit it off talking like old friends, joking and enjoying each others company.

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She knew how to work the camera

We spent some time while walking with my polaroid camera taking photos and giving them to the children we met. We found some real characters along the way who knew how to work the camera with no prompting!

My great guide Biniyam using the polaroid camera so we could print out some pictures for the young girls

My awesome guide Biniyam using the polaroid camera so we could print out some pictures for the young girls.

So much character

So much character!

The best smile we met for sure

The best smile we met for sure

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Yellows

I loved just picking a spot by the gate and sitting watching the women dressed so birightly going about their business and shopping. They were happy (through translation) to engage in conversation, many of them were not from the city but had walked a long way to come in and sell their goods and would after sunset be taking the walk home.

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Busy market

Busy market

Chillies

Chillies

They say no trip to Harar is complete without meeting the ‘Hyena man’ – Yusuf. We drove along the wall of the city and then headed for a few minutes off road past Yusuf’s house and into a field. As we approached the lights from the car shone and we could see a lot of eyes shinning back, amongst all the eyes a man and a young boy sitting feeding the twenty hyenas who had gathered. We were the only ones there and Biniyam informed me that the hyena man came out every night to feed the hyenas even if there were no tourists. If he doesn’t then they come to his house and hang about waiting to be fed.

Biniyam shows me how its done - just a casual hyena on your back being fed!

Biniyam shows me how its done – just a casual hyena on your back being fed!

Yusuf has been doing this for years and they way he handles the hyenas immediately sets you at ease. They respond to his scolding and he pushes them off like misbehaving dogs, once I had watched him for a few minutes I felt more than confident being in their presence despite the fact they are wild animals. It was interesting to watch the dominant females feed while the others had to wait around for scraps to be thrown their way – they didn’t dare challenge the bosses of the pack.

Eye contact while I squat down only a meter from this hyena

Eye contact while I squat down only a meter from this hyena

I took some adventures outside of the city of Harar as well and I highly recommend Biniyam if you are looking for a guide on your adventure to Harar. He will tailor your experience to meet your needs, which may include taking in all the ‘tourist’ spots or just sitting in a market watching life move around you. His email is feresmegala@gmail.com – send him a message and let him know when you are heading over!

2014… its been a journey

When I look back on 2014 I realise just how many opportunities I have had, amazing people I have met, the new friends I have made, and lands I have walked. Always feel super privileged to see and do all of it…. not without some challenges but these are character building and make 2015 another year to look forward to. Get out there and see the world, meet people, break down stereotypes and change peoples views!
Adventure is out there waiting!

The year that was 2014

The year that was 2014

My home in New Zealand

A beautiful evening on the beach at my hometown in New Zealand (January 2014)

View from up Mount Maunganui looking down over the beach, New Zealand

View from up Mount Maunganui looking down over the beach, New Zealand (January 2014)

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Children in peak out of a makeshift school tent following Typhoon Yolanda, Philippines (February 2014)

Roofless, Homeless but not HOPELESS, Tacloban Philippines

Roofless, Homeless but not HOPELESS, Tacloban Philippines (February 2014)

Rodolfo (73) sat with his wife Guadalupe outside their newly built home and explained to me how he survived Typhoon Yolanda. With his wife away visiting family in Manila, he stayed in their home only 30 meters from the shoreline until he saw the water level rising too high and then evacuated to the Elementary school. During the typhoon he tried to wade back through waist deep water to save some rice and supplies from his house but saw his house was flattened by coconut trees and under water. Thankful for the support to rebuild their home from external donors & a community effort led by Marie Ann Corsino they were surround by family and happy to still have one another Luan Village Leyte, Philippines.

Rodolfo (73) sat with his wife Guadalupe outside their newly built home and explained to me how he survived Typhoon Yolanda. With his wife away visiting family in Manila, he stayed in their home only 30 meters from the shoreline until he saw the water level rising too high and then evacuated to the Elementary school. During the typhoon he tried to wade back through waist deep water to save some rice and supplies from his house but saw his house was flattened by coconut trees and under water. Thankful for the support to rebuild their home from external donors & a community effort led by Marie Ann Corsino they were surround by family and happy to still have one another Luan Village Leyte, Philippines. (February 2014)

Small things make a huge difference. Children celebrate receiving new shoes after Typhoon Yolanda, Philippines (February 2014)

Small things make a huge difference. Children celebrate receiving new shoes after Typhoon Yolanda, Philippines (February 2014)

Testing out a camera with children at a school in Arusha, Tanzania (March 2014)

Testing out a camera with children at a school in Arusha, Tanzania (March 2014)

Happy faces at a school in Arusha, Tanzania (March 2014)

Happy faces at a school in Arusha, Tanzania (March 2014)

Shy schoolgirl hides her smile, Arusha, Tanzania (March 2014)

Shy schoolgirl hides her smile, Arusha, Tanzania (March 2014)

Hong Kong Harbour as the sun goes down (iPHONEOGRAPHY) April 2014

Star Ferry crosses Hong Kong Harbour as the sun goes down (iPHONEOGRAPHY) (April 2014)

Two of my favourite boys kicking back having a laugh, Rwanda (June 2014)

Two of my favourite boys kicking back having a laugh, Rwanda (June 2014)

Back at the No.41 House (check them out www.no41.org) Rwanda (July 2014)

Back at the No.41 House, Rwanda (July 2014)

Check out No41 here www.no41.org

A sweet young girl who came walking up all curious outside a local school (iPHONEOGRAPHY) Rwanda (July 2014)

A sweet young girl who came walking up all curious outside a local school, Rwanda (iPHONEOGRAPHY) (July 2014)

The sun goes down over the land of 1000 hills, Rwanda (July 2014)

The sun goes down over the land of 1000 hills, Rwanda (July 2014)

I first met Scraggles and fell in love with her, my street dog in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia (August 2014)

I first met Scraggles and fell in love with her, my street dog in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia (August 2014)

Check out her transformation story, photos & video here… https://strengthinvulnerability.com/2014/11/17/scraggles-her-transformation/

Four friends at a school in Woliso, Ethiopia (September 2014)

Four friends at a school in Woliso, Ethiopia (September 2014)

Peaking out, schoolgirls in Woliso, Ethiopia (September 2014)

Peaking out, schoolgirls in Woliso, Ethiopia (September 2014)

Juggling down the beach, Zanzibar Tanzania (October 2014)

Juggling down the beach, Zanzibar Tanzania (October 2014)

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Friends help with smiles, Ethiopia (November 2014)

And as the sun goes down on 2014… I finish the year back home in New Zealand with friends and family before heading back to Ethiopia in a few weeks!

“Not all those who wander are lost”